Integers are whole numbers, which includes
# Example, Python int data type int_a = 5 int_b = -2 type(int_a)
- positive (1,2, ...)
- negative (-1, -2, ...)
- zero (0)
In python, integer numbers are written as below.Syntax:
variable = put number here
- class 'int'
Below table specifies int operations in python.
|Operation||Description||Result data type
when x and y
|both int||at least one float|
|x + y||sum / addition of x and y||int||float|
|x - y||subtract y from x||int||float|
|x * y||multiply x and y||int||float|
|x / y||x divided by y||float||float|
|x // y||x integer division y||int||float|
|x % y||x modulo y, remainder of x / y||int||float|
|-x||negation of x||int||float|
|abs(x)||absolute of x||int||float|
|divmod(x, y)||pair of (x // y, x % y)||tuple of int||tuple of float|
|pow(x, y)||x raised to power y||int||float|
|x ** y||x raised to power y||int||float|
It returns floored quotient of x / y. It is also called Floor division. For positive values, it is like removing decimal point and fractional part (digits after decimal point). For negative values, it is like removing decimal point, removing fractional part (digits after decimal point) and shifting result one step away from 0.
Result is always floored in integer division.
# Example, integer division a = 20 b = 3 c = a // b # assign 6 a = 20 b = -3 c = a // b # assign -7
Int divided by intIt returns float.
# Example, int divided by int a = 20 b = 3 type(a/b)
Points to consider for int divided by int and converting result to int
Say, you need int divided by int output as int.
- Now consider 81/10 and 89/10. Are you ok with result value 8 for both?
- Suppose number is negative, -81/10 and -89/10, Are you ok with result value -9 for both?
- Suppose its -91/10, Are you looking for -9 or -10?
You are discussing round (8.1 to 8, 8.9 to 9), rounding for exact middle point (8.5 to 8 or 9?), floor, ceil, etc.
# Example, int divided by int print(81/10) print(81//10) print(89/10) print(89//10) print(-81/10) print(-81//10) print(-89/10) print(-89//10) print(-91/10) print(-91//10)
Int divided by floatIt returns float.
Float divided by intIt returns float.
Int operations with floatIf operation involves int and float (i.e. mix), it returns float.
Increment ++ operator, Decrement -- operatorPython does not have ++ increment or -- decrement operator. Use += or -= (i.e short from of assignment with addition / subtraction).
# Example, int increment a1 = 2 a1 += 1 # 3 a1 = a1 + 1 # 4 a1 -= 1 # 3 a1 = a1 - 1 # 2
- Binary / bin / Base 2 - it contains only 0, 1.
- Octal / oct / Base 8 - it contains 0 to 7.
- Decimal / dec / Base 10 - it contains 0 to 9.
- Hexadecimal / hex / Base 16 - it contains 0 to 9, A to F / a to f.
When you create integer as binary / octal / decimal or hex, its type remain same (int). Computer will be storing data in binary only, However, when we/our program interact with computer, we generally prefer decimal number.
So, we need a facility to specify that we are passing binary / octal / hex number and not decimal. Key point to note is, with facility available to specify binary / octal / hex (0b/0B/0o/0O/0x/0X), when you try to print without specifying anything, it is generally visible as decimal.
So, we need one more facility to specify that, while printing / fetching, pls provide it in specific base. This conversion to binary / octal / hex returns as string type in python.
Use prefix 0b or 0B with number to create variable with binary value.
# Example, create variable with binary value of decimal 255. int_a = 0b11111111 int_b = 0B11111111 type(int_a) # returns class 'int' print(int_a) # prints 255
Use prefix 0o or 0O with number to create variable with octal value.
# Example, create variable with octal value of decimal 255. int_a = 0o377 int_b = 0O377 type(int_a) # returns class 'int' print(int_a) # prints 255
No prefix required to create variable with decimal value.
# Example, create variable with decimal 255. int_a = 255 type(int_a) # returns class 'int' print(int_a) # prints 255
Use prefix 0x or 0X with number to create variable with hex value. Uppercase (A-F) and lowercase (a-f) both are allowed.
# Example, create variable with hex value of decimal 255. int_a = 0xFF int_b = 0XFF int_c = 0xff int_d = 0xFf type(int_a) # returns class 'int' print(int_a) # prints 255